Home Environment Water and effluents Water and effluents Water Water resources are essential to our activities and we develop programs and implement actions that go beyond compliance with legal requirements to optimize water use and consumption. Vale is a ICMM (International Mining and Metals Council) member, and utilizes the GRI (Global Report Initiative) methodology to your reports and sustainability reports, the main ones being the Water Security Questionnaire (Disclosure Insight Action - CDP) and the Integrated Report. We implement water management practices that provide strong and transparent governance, effective and efficient management in operations and seek to exceed stakeholder expectations in order to promote sustainable water use. To develop the responsible management of water use in the territory, where the mining enterprise will be implemented, the quantity and quality of water availability is verified considering the other dependent users of that watershed. To this end, the uses of water in the respective watersheds are consulted through the systems controlled by the environmental agencies and the users' registry. After these analyses and verifying viability, specific reports are prepared to obtain the permissions for water use and effluent discharge. Quali-quantitative monitoring networks are set up and operate from the implementation phase until the closure of the enterprise. The results of this information are consolidated in management systems (Hydro Geoanalyst, Credit 360 and in internal management plataform) and analyzed by specialized technicians in order to ensure environmental quality and quantity and legal commitments. Effluents The effluents generated at Vale's operating units come from industrial uses and human consumption. These effluents are reused in the company's processes whenever feasible. To improve our effluent management, online and continuous effluent monitoring processes will be implemented in all our operating units , and the data obtained will be managed in a single, integrated system for all Vale. This continuous knowledge of the quantity and quality of effluents in sensitive points, as well as the integrated management of all information generated in monitoring, is essential for understanding the water conditions of the watersheds where we operate, as well as for greater predictability of the evolution of these conditions and, with that, have a better basis for sustainable decision-making. Download Vale’s CDP Questionnaire KPIs Report Water Volume and percentage and water stress level (in millions of m³) -2021 North America and Europe South America Africa, Asia and Oceania Total Volume (million of m³) % Volume (million of m³) % Volume (million of m³) % Volume (million of m³) % Total 34 62 22 118 Low 34 100% 42 68% 20 91% 96 81% Low to medium 0 0% 17 27% 0 0% 17 14% Medium to high 0 0% 3 5% 0 0% 3 3% High 0 0% 0 0% 2 9% 2 2% Extremely High 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% North America and Europe Volume (million of m³) % Total 34 Low 34 100% Low to medium 0 0% Medium to high 0 0% High 0 0% Extremely High 0 0% South America Volume (million of m³) % Total 62 Low 42 68% Low to medium 17 27% Medium to high 3 5% High 0 0% Extremely High 0 0% Africa, Asia and Oceania Volume (million of m³) % Total 22 Low 20 91% Low to medium 0 0% Medium to high 0 0% High 2 9% Extremely High 0 0% Total Volume (million of m³) % Total 118 Low 96 81% Low to medium 17 14% Medium to high 3 3% High 2 2% Extremamente alto 0 0% Distribution of the total volume of fresh water withdrawal by regions according to water risk (2021) Hydric balance -2021 (In million of m³) Performance evolution Water The main uses of water in mining are for the ore processing, machinery and parts cleaning, environmental controls, hygiene and human consumption. The methodology that Vale adopts to consolidate the water balance of its operations and disclose its results in the sustainability report considers the following main parts: water collected and used by the operational unit, water collected unused and returned to the environment, water collected and made available to third parties, total volume of reuse and disposal of industrial and domestic effluents. In 2021, the total volume of water for use in our production processes was 119 m³, a value 18% lower than the volume withdrawn in 2020. Total demand (in millions of m³) Water withdrawal for Vale’s production processes (in millions of m³) Effluents In 2021, Vale maintained its water reuse rate at the levels of the las few years, at 80%. In its management strategy, Vale understands that this is a way to reduce fresh water withdrawal. In 2021, 18.2 million m3 of effluents were discharged, considering the high and low quality standards adopted by mining1. In 2020, of the total 29 million m3 of effluents discharged, 52% were classified as high quality and the other 48% were classified as low quality, however, respecting the release limits established in local legislation. 1 Standards adopted by mining for effluent quality (ICMM): - High quality: total Dissolved Solids < 5,000mg/l and pH between 4 and 10 and without compounds in a concentration harmful to human health. - Low quality: Total Dissolved Solid > 5,000mg/l or pH < 4 or > 10 or have compounds in a concentration harmful to human health Goals, Deadlines and Control The Water Target set in the year 2018 had a commitment to reduce freshwater withdrawal for use in our production processes. The goal was to reduce 10% of specific use for 2017 by 2030 (fresh water withdrawal and used in processes per ton produced), which means lower volume of new water captured for the same production volume. Throughout 2021 the accumulated results exceeded the established goal. Thus, Vale's water resources team with the leadership and technical consultancy has been working hard to launch new goals in 2022 focusing on the following pillars: Governance, Monitoring and Control, Water Risk Management and Stakeholder Engagement in the watershed where our operations are located. Beyond the target, we invest in the continuous improvement of water resource management to adhere ICMM's principles. All of these strategies are aligned with the Structuring Plan, which is the basis of the Target Water program . Thus, among our main commitments related to the water resource management are: Manage our operating units’ water resources by following the stipulated procedures, with annual frequency and by sampling; Acquire, install, revise, expand and maintain our water monitoring network through studies and acquisition of monitoring equipment and instruments for measurement and automation; Identify and make infrastructural projects and executions feasible to improve the management of water resources and effluents; Map water resources; Keep water balances up to date; Expand the use of the water resources and effluents data management tool; Establish a methodology for economic valuation of ecosystem services related to water resources; Map opportunities to optimize water use and reduce water collection for use in the processes through reuse; Develop and implement effluent treatment systems; Reduce and/or eliminate losses (evaporation, retained water in tailings, leaks, etc). Monthly verification of the water use efficiency of all Vale’s operations, and the results are recorded in a internal management system and presented to the leadership in the performance meetings. For the operational deviations, the non-conformities are registered, the root cause analysis must be performed, effective action plans are elaborated, with specific goals in the problem resolution and reoccurrences elimination. Impact Management Tailings Retention Measures Five days after the breach of Dam I, Vale presented to the Public Prosecutor's Office and to environmental agencies a plan for action in three sections along the Paraopeba River, with an emergency-level urgency: Stretch 1 –Up to 10 km from the site of the dam breach: considering the strategic geographic position to optimize tailings containment in the Ferro-Carvão Stream, located downstream of the dam breach and to avoid material input to the Paraopeba River, we plan to construct containment structures, such as rockfill dikes, hydraulic barriers and a metal curtain, as well as to install a Fluvial Water Treatment Plant in the Ferro-Carvão Stream, with the capacity to treat approximately 2 million liters per hour, already in operation. A 50-meter metal and concrete bridge was built to restore access to the communities of the Parque da Cachoeira and Córrego do Feijão to the central area of Brumadinho. The bridge allows dual-vehicle traffic and includes pedestrian walkways. Policies and Procedures Our Sustainability Policy sets out the guidelines and principles for sustainability in our projects and operations, spelling out our commitment to life first and our social, environmental and economic responsibility. The implementation of these principles and guidelines will take place from three dimensions: Sustainable Operator, related to the responsible performance throughout the life cycle of our projects; Local Development Catalyst, focused on collaboration with the socioeconomic and environmental development of the territories where we operate, with the establishment of intersectoral partnerships with the aim of leaving a positive legacy; and Global Sustainability Agent, which forsees our contribution to dialogue and the search for solutions to sustainable development challenges shared by various regions and countries in which we operate. Risks Overview The Aqueduct tool, developed by the WRI (World Resources Institute), assists us in assessing water stress, which provides a global view of the regions most susceptible to fluvial and coastal flooding, the severity of droughts, the seasonal and interannual water variability, as well as its scarcity. Based on this tool, it is possible to correlate the use of water of our operational units with the degree of risk indicated. The accuracy of the databases to generate these global assessments has increased substantially in recent years and is continually improving, however, it is necessary to verify and complement these assessments considering the knowledge and perceptions of local operational water risks, their possible impacts and mitigations' actions. In this sense, in 2020 we started applying a water risk sensitivity analysis methodology for each operational unit, that is, the local scale of physical risks and internal technical criteria. This methodology was applied in 46 operational units considering the following physical risks: floods, conflict over use, supply and droughts. It is noteworthy that an operational unit may be exposed to more than one physical risk and the results of this methodology are presented below, indicating the general result as well as for each of the types of physical risks considered. Water Risk Sensitivity The process of mapping and managing water risks and impacts is continuous and should refer to the water catchment where we operate and that we have influence. Thus, it is necessary to promote the continuous improvement of our water risk assessment processes with focus on potential physical, regulatory and reputation impacts, climate change interference and the multiple use of water, considering the physical, biotic, economic, social diversity and cultural aspects of the different regions. Once risks are identified and mapped, it is mandatory to establish, monitor and execute action plans prioritizing their mitigation. Vale's water risk management actions and initiatives has a local and global nature, and involves the review and improvement of governance processes, establishment of new policies, HIRA application and updating of the units' master plans, in addition to alignment with the established principles by ICMM (International Council on Mining and Metal). Perspectives In addition to the main goal of Target Water, the program also invests in the continuous improvement of water resource management to adhere ICMM’s principles. In 2018, Vale established the 2030 Water Goal to reduce the specific use of water by 10% (base year 2017). By 2020, it had achieved an 8.7% reduction. Among the main water resources management initiatives carried out in 2020, we can highlight: Technical Knowledge - Innovation and R&D: Continuous and online water quality monitoring system (metals), analysis (Vale Technological Development and Sustainability Institute). Development of equipment for continuous monitoring of water quality through sponsorship and participation in startup (Mining HUB, Brazilian Mining Institute). Technical Knowledge - Management and monitoring Expansion and improvement of the quantitative monitoring network, with electromagnetic meters, river stations and data transmission in real time. Expansion of the water resource data management system in the operational units. Governance - Standards and processes Preparation and disclosure of the Water and Water Resources Policy. Adequacy of the Global Internal Standard for the Management of Water Resources and Effluents to the guidelines of the ICMM. Verification of the adherence of the operating units in Brazil to the Global Internal Standard for the Management of Water and Effluent Resources. Institution of the Water Resources Forum. Water Risk Management. Analysis of water risks and sensitivity to operations. Responsible Management Strategy. Dry Processing The company has planned to significantly reduce the use of dams and will invest in solutions to replace wet processing with safer and more sustainable processes. This is the case of dry processing, which will reach 70% of our iron ore production by 2024. Regarding the rest of the wet production, 16 percentage points will use the dry filtering and stacking system for tailings treatment, which will require approximately USD 2.3 billion by 2025. The system is being implemented at the Vargem Grande, Itabira and Brucutu complexes, contributing to less dependence on the use of tailings dams. Dry Processing Vale Brazil Vale also plans to increase the development of new technologies, such as dry magnetic separation of iron ore, made possible by the New Steel acquisition in 2018, currently at the testing phase. The treatment plants in Serra Leste, in Curionópolis and S11D, in Canaã dos Carajpas, also do not use water to ore treatment. In S11D, for example, using the natural moisture procesing route reduces water consumption by 93% compared to a conventional iron ore production project. The water conserved equals the annual supply for a city of 400,000 inhabitants. In Minas Gerais, dry processing was expanded from 20% (2016) to 32% (2019). Today, this type of processing is present in several units, such as Brucutu, Alegria, Fábrica Nova, Fazendão, Abóboras, Mutuca and Pico.